A study of the hydrodynamics of drafting, initiated inmechanisms causing the separation of mothers and calves during fishing-related activities, is reported here. Results Quantitative results are shown for the forces and moments around a pair of unequally sized dolphin-like slender bodies. These include two major effects. First, the so-called Bernoulli suction, which stems from the fact that the local pressure drops in areas of high speed, results in an attractive force between mother and calf.
Second is the displacement effect, in which the motion of the mother causes the water in front to move forwards and radially outwards, and water behind the body to move forwards to replace the animal's mass. Thus, the calf can gain a 'free ride' in the forward-moving areas. Conclusions A theoretical analysis, backed by observations of free-swimming dolphin schools, indicates that hydrodynamic interactions with mothers play an important role in enabling dolphin calves to keep up with rapidly moving adult school members. This is an Open Access article: verbatim copying and redistribution of this article are permitted in all media for any purpose, provided this notice is preserved along with the article's original URL.
The informative abstract, also known as the complete abstract, is a compendious summary of a paper's substance and its background, purpose, methodology, results, and conclusion. The descriptive abstract, also known as the limited abstract or the indicative abstract, provides a description of what the paper covers without delving into its substance. During the late s, due to the influence of computer storage and retrieval systems such as the Internet , some scientific publications, primarily those published by Elsevier , started including graphical abstracts alongside the text abstracts.
It is not intended to be as exhaustive a summary as the text abstract, rather it is supposed to indicate the type, scope, and technical coverage of the article at a glance. The use of graphical abstracts has been generally well received by the scientific community.
How to make your Abstract more Effective, Abstract offers a Preview
However, the validity of this assumption has not been thoroughly studied, and a recent study statistically comparing publications with or without graphical abstracts with regard to several output parameters reflecting visibility failed to demonstrate an effectiveness of graphical abstracts for attracting attention to scientific publications.
Various methods can be used to evaluate abstract quality, e. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Graphical abstract. See also: Video abstract.
Finkelstein Jr, Leo Bly , The Elements of Technical Writing , pg. New York : Macmillan Publishers , Mahwah, NJ: Psychology Press. PLOS Medicine.
A randomized controlled trial". Archived from the original on 4 May Retrieved A: Math. Bibcode : JPhA Journal of Biology. McGraw Hill.
Colorado State University. Journal of Information Science. Notice the main points that the authors chose to mention in the abstract. Use these examples as a guide when choosing the main ideas in your own paper. Write a rough draft of your abstract. While you should aim for brevity, be careful not to make your summary too short. Try to write one to two sentences summarizing each section of your paper. Once you have a rough draft, you can edit for length and clarity. Ask a friend to read over the abstract.
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Sometimes having someone look at your abstract with fresh eyes can provide perspective and help you spot possible typos and other errors. Things to Consider When Writing an Abstract. For an abstract of an experimental report:.
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Begin by identifying the problem. In many cases, you might begin by stating the question you sought out to investigate and your hypothesis.
A good abstract is an invitation to read your paper
Describe the participants in the study. State how many participants took part and how they were selected. For example, you might state that "In this study, undergraduate student participants were randomly assigned to [the experimental condition] or [the control condition]. For example, you might identify if you used a within-subjects, between-subjects, or mixed design. Give the basic findings. This is essentially a very brief preview of the results of your paper.
How to Write an Abstract Definition Essay
Provide any conclusions or implications of the study. What might your results indicate and what directions does it point to for future research. For an abstract of a meta-analysis or literature review:. Describe the problem of interest. In other words, what is it that you set out to investigate in your analysis or review. Explain the criteria that were used to select the studies included in the paper. Realistically, there may be many different studies devoted to your topic. Your analysis or review probably only looks at a portion of these studies. For what reason did you select these specific studies to include in your research?
Identify the participants in the studies. Just as in an experimental abstract, you need to inform the reader about who the participants were in the studies. Were they college students? Older adults? How were they selected and assigned? Provide the main results. Again, this is essentially a quick peek at what readers will find when they read your results section. Don't try to include everything.
Just quickly provide a very brief summary of your main findings. Describe any conclusions or implications. What might these results mean and what do they reveal about the body of research that exists on this particular topic? A Word From Verywell. Some more tips that might help you get your abstract in tip-top shape:. Look in academic psychology journals for examples of abstracts.
Keep on hand a copy of a style guide published by the American Psychological Association for reference. If possible, take your paper to your school's writing lab for assistance. Was this page helpful? Thanks for your feedback! Sign Up. What are your concerns? Article Sources.
Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper: 3. The Abstract